References 1. Comparing the carbon footprint kg of carbon dioxide emitted per kg of productthe water footprint liter of water consumed per kg of product and the ecological footprint squared meters per kg of product of the Mediterranean Diet with those of a high-protein diet, we can see that the Mediterranean Diet has a significantly lower impact click to enlarge the table.
This discussion paper also provided a first list of potential sustainability indicators, based on existing data source, taking into account priority challenges 58 The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.
Investigations in the early 90s already showed that dietary patterns throughout the Mediterranean countries were increasingly moving away 18 — 20 from those reported in the 60s. Since then, various dietary scores of adherence to the Mediterranean diet have been published and extensively reviewed in Ref.
Also, in rainy countries, the impact on water availability will be even lower because less irrigated water is needed and therefore less blue water, which is the one that contributes the most to the phenomenon of water scarcity. An Overview of the Themes Surrounding the Mediterranean Diet Historically, starting from the s, the Mediterranean diet began to be studied as a model of a healthy diet with reduced morbidity and mortality.
Mediterranean diet pyramid: Population growth, globalization, urbanization, and socio-economic factors are causing changes in diets and consumption patterns in the Mediterranean region and southern European countries 64 — Therefore, FAO and CIHEAM-Bari started a joint collaboration on the Mediterranean diet as a case study on which to develop and validate methods and indicators for the assessment of the sustainability of diets and food consumption patterns in the Mediterranean area.
Food systems around the world are changing rapidly, with profound implications for diets and food consumption outcomes. Despite its increasing popularity worldwide, adherence to the Mediterranean diet model is decreasing for multifactorial influences — life styles changes, food globalization, economic, and socio-cultural factors.
Under-nutrition is still significant in the South of the Mediterranean: Susanna Bramante Susanna Bramante is an agronomist, nutritional consultant and scientific writer, author and co-author of 11 scientific publications and numerous articles on human nutrition and its impact on health and environment.
Therefore, changes toward optimizing both food consumption and food production are foreseen to ensure more SFSs and contribute to achieve food and nutrition security in the Mediterranean region This shift of interest on the Mediterranean diet, from a healthy diet to a sustainable dietary pattern, would also contribute to the improvement of the sustainability of Mediterranean food systems and food security and nutrition in the Mediterranean area.
The new revised Mediterranean diet pyramid was conceived as a simplified main frame to be respect to biodiversity mediterranean diet to different countries specific variations related to the various geographical, socio-economic, and cultural contexts of the contemporary Mediterranean lifestyle, taking into account also their different portions and serving sizes.
The Mediterranean diet is characterized by a nutritional model that has remained constant over time and space, consisting mainly of olive oil, cereals, fresh or dried fruit and vegetables, a moderate amount of fish, dairy and meat, and many condiments and spices, all accompanied by wine or infusions, always respecting beliefs of each community.
The evolution of concepts surrounding the Mediterranean diet 2. Then, in the early s, the Mediterranean diet as a plant-centered diet, consequently lowered demand on soil, water, and energy resources, began to be researched by Joan Dye Gussow as a sustainable dietary pattern, which also considers the overall impact on the ecosystem In fact, not all farmland is suitable for every purpose: Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Since then, the Mediterranean diet has been widely studied and reported to be a model of healthy eating associated with significant nutritional and health benefits 7 — Within this definition, on this occasion, the Mediterranean diet was acknowledged as a sustainable diet example.
Thus, to continue eating a bit of meat would allow to feed more people, which would be harder if everyone was vegan. At this conference, the Mediterranean diet was analyzed as a sustainable diet model, because of its nutritional, environmental, economic, and socio-cultural dimensions at the core of the sustainability rationale These changes pose serious threats to the preservation and transmission of the Mediterranean diet heritage to present and future generations.
Some studies have shown that foods with lower greenhouse gas emissions do not have always also higher nutritional values 7778and more studies are also needed to assess the relation between the nutrient adequacy of individual foods and total diets in relation to multiple sustainability assessments Since then, the Mediterranean diet has been widely studied and reported to be a model of healthy eating associated with significant nutritional and health benefits 7 — As a result, the Mediterranean diet is an expression of the different food cultures present in the Mediterranean region, with diverse food consumption and production patterns, in continuous evolution representing the particular historical and environmental mosaic that is the Mediterranean 2.The Mediterranean diet constitutes a set of skills, knowledge, practices and traditions ranging from the landscape to the table, including the crops, harvesting, fishing, conservation, processing, preparation and, particularly, consumption of food.
Biodiversity and sustainable diets United against Hunger Mediterranean diet as an example of a sustainable diet The Mediterranean diet is considered as a paragon, absolute model, among the world's diets It is difficult to know which specific dietary pattern we speak about, because of the wide diversity of food rations in the Mediterranean area: cereals, pulses predominate in the South, cereals, pulses.
· The notion of the Mediterranean diet has undergone a progressive evolution over the past 60 years, from a healthy dietary pattern to a sustainable dietary pattern, in which nutrition, food, cultures, people, environment, and sustainability all interact into a new model of a sustainable robadarocker.com by: The Mediterranean diet originated also a considerable set of knowledge, chants, refrains, tales and legends.
Therefore there is an attitude of respect for the land and the biodiversity and guarantees of the preservation and development of traditional and artisanal activities linked to agriculture and fishing in many communities in the Mediterranean ().
· The results to date clearly indicate that the Mediterranean diet is also a healthy and sustainable diet model, essentially through the reduced environmental impact of its primarily vegetable.
In conclusion, as many scientific evidence confirms, the Mediterranean Diet is sustainable at degrees, it perfectly satisfies all the nutritional needs, for which other extremist diets may be deficient (vegan diet) or excess (high-protein diet), but also safeguards the environment, its biodiversity, as well as the respect for cultural heritage and traditions.